Information revolutions and spreading of communication channels: overview of divergence and/or convergence of the media

Anita Papić, Tomislav Jakopec, Milijana Mičunović



The paper provides an overview of the so-called information revolutions, with a special emphasis on the spreading of communication channels. The notion 'information revolution' is used conditionally – not in the sense of disruptive changes in communication models, but in the sense of expansion of communication possibilities.
The revolutions were identified using Irving E. Fang's criteria. He defined six revolutions: writing, printing, mass media, using media for entertainment, the 'toolshed' (now called 'home'), and the Information Highway. The paper presents the basic media in each of the revolutions, questions the very current issues of convergence (as some modern scholars consider the term convergence to be more appropriate than the term revolution), and divergence of media, and special attention is paid to the social context that lead to particular revolutions.
The central conclusion is that information revolutions were not the time of replacing the old media with the new, but the times of condensation of communication possibilities. During those times the new media joined the existing types, not replacing them but co-existing. They faded out gradually or disappeared only over extended periods of time.

Key-words: information revolutions, media, convergence, divergence, communication.

Full Text:

PDF (Hrvatski)


Abd-El-Barr, M. i H. El-Rewini. 2005. Fundamentals of computer organization and architecture. New Jersey: JohnWiley&Sons, Inc.

Baudrillard, J. 2001. Simulakrumi i simulacija. Karlovac: Naklada Društva arhitekata, građevinara i geodeta, Biblioteka Psefizma.

Bischoff, B. 2003. Latin Palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Briggs, A. i P. Burke. 2010. A social history of the media: from Gutenberg to the Internet. Polity Press.

Buchanon, L., Luck, D. L. i T. Jones. 2002. „Integrating Information Literacy into the Virtual University: A Course Model.“ Library trends 51, 2: 144 – 166.

Buckland, M. 1998. „What is a document?“ URL:

Ceruzzi E. P. 2003. A History of Modern Computing. London: The MIT Press.

Crowley, D. i P. Heyer. 1995. Communication in history: technology, culture, society. Longman Publishers USA.

Dahl, S. 1979. Povijest knjige: od antike do danas. Zagreb: Hrvatsko bibliotekarsko društvo.

David, D. 1991. Povijest pisma. Zagreb: Hrvatsko bibliotekarsko društvo.

Duguid P. 2002. Material Matters. The Past And Futurology of the Book. U: The Book History Reader, ur. Finkelstein D. i A. McCleery, 494 – 508. London – New York: Routledge.

Eisenstein, E. 1993. The Printing Press as an Agent of Change. Communications and Cultural Transformations in Early-Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fahy, P. J. Theory and Practice of Online Learning. Athabasca University. URL:

Fang, I. 1997. A history of mass communication: six information revolutions. Boston, Oxford, Johannesburg, Melbourne, New Delhi, Singapore: FocalPress.

Gitelman, L. 2006. Always Already New. Media, History, and the Data of Culture. Cambridge – London: The MIT Press.

Grbavac, V. 1988. Informatika: kompjutori i primjena. Zagreb: Školska knjiga.

Ingwersen, P. 1992. „Information and information science in context.“ Libri 42 (2): 99 – 135.

Jenkins, H. 2006. Convergence Culture. Where Old and New Media Collide. New York – London: New York University Press. Kindle Edition.

Jenks, C. 2002. Vizualna kultura. Zagreb: Naklada Jesenski i Turk, Hrvatsko sociološko društvo.

Love, H. 2002. Early modern print culture. Assessing the models. U: The Book History Reader, ur. Finkelstein D. i A. McCleery, 47 – 65. London – New York: Routledge.

O’Regan, G. 2008. A Brief History of Computing. London: Springer-Verlag London Limited.

Pelc, M. 2002. Pismo – knjiga – slika: uvod u povijest informacijske kulture. Zagreb: Golden marketing.

Peruško, Z. 2011. Uvod u medije. Zagreb: Naklada Jesenski i Turk, Hrvatsko sociološko društvo.

Saracevic, T. 2006. Prilozi utemeljenju teorije informacijske znanosti. Osijek: Filozofski fakultet.

Stipčević, A. 2006. Povijest knjige. Zagreb: Matica hrvatska.

Šundalić, A. i I. Heteši. 2006. „Mediji i nove vrijednosti društva slobodnog tržišta.“ Informatologija 39 (4): 271 – 275.

Vakkari, P. 1994. „Library and information science: its content and scope.“ Advances in librarianship18: 1 – 55.


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Libellarium (Online). ISSN 1846-9213 © 2008


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.